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Why Urine in Carpet is so Difficult to Remove
When urine is allowed to dry and remain in the carpet or other material, it begins bonding itself to the fibers. The longer it is allowed to remain the stronger the bond becomes.
Proteins (chains of amino acids) physically bond to the fibers while other portions of the urine crystallize into salts, forming ionic (electric charge) bonds. At this point it has become impossible to completely remove by cleaning alone.
In the meanwhile, Mother Nature begins the process of decay. This painstakingly slow process is the root of your odor problem.
Why Urine Stinks and Gets Worse Over Time
The composition of urine is complicated. Think of any possible combination of substances previously ingested: water, fish heads, mice, bones, etc., all of which contain many elements. Some of the parts are transformed by the body into yet other identifiable compounds before a watery elimination. For our discussion we will address the parts of urine referred here as "organic wastes"; those portions of urine that decay.
The process of DK results in bacteria consuming the waste while converting it into gases. It is nature's way of getting rid of it. Organic wastes are a natural source of food for bacteria. Feeding on the wastes the bacteria produce obnoxious vapors, releasing primarily ammonia sulfur and methane gases in various combinations which we perceive as a bad order. Put yet another way, what our noses discern as an obnoxious odor is in reality bacteria excrement.
Ammonia is the principal gas produced from urine decay. Chemically alkaline, the increasing presence of ammonia causes the pH to rise steadily, which in turn inhibits bacterial growth and the natural process of decay. While preferring a balanced, neutral pH, bacterial growth slowly continues nevertheless, gradually producing ever more inhibiting ammonia and other malodorous gases. In this loop, it can take Mother Nature several years to remove the odor's source. Simply stated, when it comes to urine naturally occurring bacteria eat very slowly, but other than that have no table manners at all!